Revolução: música na era digital

27/04/2015 – 10h59 – Publicado em 27/04/2015
Autor: Leandro Reis | lsreis@redegazeta.com.br

Serviços de streaming crescem, mas com eles aumenta o debate sobre direitos autorais

FrejatServiço periférico quando a pirataria lotou a internet de músicas para download, o streaming, que oferece a audição paga e direta pela internet, vem finalmente crescendo no Brasil. A ferramenta tem a vantagem de combater o compartilhamento ilegal, visto que rende direitos autorais, além de permitir que o usuário ouça discos inteiros de maneira confortável, via smartphones e tablets, por exemplo, sem a necessidade de baixar o CD.

As novas tecnologias vêm dando fôlego ao combalido mercado fonográfico. De 2013 para 2014, a venda de música digital subiu 53,6%, segundo a Associação Brasileira dos Produtores de Discos (ABPD). Já o mercado físico continua em declínio: as vendas de CDs, DVDs e Blu-Rays caíram 15,44% em 2014, segundo a Federação Internacional da Indústria Fonográfica (IFPI). Hoje, a renda oriunda do digital compõe 48% do mercado brasileiro.

Apesar do crescimento, os serviços de streaming, como Deezer, Spotify e Rdio, estão cercados de problemas. Um deles é o pagamento de direitos autorais aos artistas, tema que teve grande repercussão recentemente. No Brasil, a Google está há 27 meses sem repassar o dinheiro aos músicos devido a um impasse com a União Brasileira das Editoras de Música (Ubem). A verba é relativa a exibições do YouTube, muito usado no Brasil para escutar música.

“Até hoje, apesar de muito da minha produção estar no YouTube, não tenho notícia de nenhum pagamento de direitos”, diz Jards Macalé, em entrevista ao C2. O compositor é personagem importante no debate desde os anos 1970 – ele constituiu o Sombrás, que veio a compor a assembleia geral do Escritório Central de Arrecadação e Distribuição (Ecad).

tidal
O imbróglio vai além. Os artistas argumentam que os serviços pagam pouco, e que nem todas as empresas divulgam informações sobre execuções e faturamento. Foi justamente com foco em remunerar de forma justa os artistas que o rapper Jay Z lançou, em março, sua própria plataforma de streaming, o Tidal, que ganhou a adesão de nomes de peso como Kanye West, Beyoncé, Rihanna, Madonna e Coldplay.

No Brasil, dois times estão na dianteira: o Grupo de Ação Parlamentar Pró-Música (GAP), que abriga músicos como Frejat e Leoni, e o Procure Saber, com Caetano Veloso, Lenine e outros. Os músicos estão articulados com o Ministério da Cultura (MinC) para intervir na negociação entre Google e Ubem.

Um artigo que deu densidade ao debate foi “Precisamos falar sobre o streaming”, em que Carlos Taran, empresário de Dado Villa-Lobos (Legião Urbana), explica que as empresas de streaming repassam uma boa parte do faturamento para os artistas – 70%. No entanto, como atestam os autores, a equação é nebulosa, seja a respeito da quantidade de execuções, seja sobre o faturamento total da empresa.

Royalties

Para Carlos Taran, a divulgação dos valores é “uma questão de tempo”, visto que o mercado digital no Brasil está em fase inicial. A conversa principal, segundo ele, deve ser entre artistas e gravadoras, a fim de uma redistribuição de royalties mais justa. “As gravadoras estão ficando com a maior parte do bolo”, diz. “Quando se trata de contratos para sincronização de músicas em filmes ou comerciais, já existe a opção de dividir os royalties em 50/50. Portanto, existem antecedentes para uma distribuição mais justa.”

Enquanto isso, a maior parte da receita de artistas continua saindo de shows, e não da venda de seus discos – seja por meio digital, seja em formato físico. Segundo Leo Morel, professor de Cultura e Novas Mídias da FGV-Rio, o streaming é mais importante como promoção. “Ele permite um acesso fácil a um acervo global de música. Gera pouco dinheiro aos artistas? Sim, mas já é um começo. Se observarmos que o consumidor brasileiro vem optando aos poucos por voltar a pagar pelo acesso à música, o futuro pode ser promissor ao mercado”, diz o professor, que chama a atenção para a baixa qualidade da conexão à internet como complicador.

Texto original publicado em http://gazetaonline.globo.com/_conteudo/2015/04/entretenimento/cultura_e_famosos/3895494-revolucao-musica-na-era-digital.html

Music Business Innovation Lab: Transmedia Collaborations for Executives

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Program Information

The program of study has been designed specifically for international music and media business executives, with a curriculum grounded in guided practice and critical theory that interweaves music, business, innovation and new media. Participants will work closely with FGV and NYU faculty, guest speakers, and each other to debate and discuss such questions as:

  • what are the most significant social, cultural, technological and economic changes taking place that today’s executive must be aware of?
  • what do fans, customers, sponsors and other stakeholders expect from the cultural and creative industries in the coming years?
  • how should the various value propositions of transmedia exploitation be compared and differentiated?
Who is it for?

The Music Business Innovation Lab has been designed for music and media industry executives with 3-8 years of experience. The program aims to develop participant’s capabilities in such areas as:

  • working across technological and cultural boundaries
  • exploring emergent platforms and media formats
  • analyzing the trends underlying evolving models for music in a transmedia context
  • developing business models and strategies with clear value propositions and potential.
Syllabus

Music Business Innovation Lab syllabus

Course Description:
This week-long intensive program is positioned at the intersection of several overlapping areas of study dealing with emerging business models and international markets for music and media. It examines existing and emergent strategies for designing hybrid business models to manage the dispersal of content across multiple platforms, including interactive websites, smartphone and tablet apps, social video games, music and video streaming services, live performances, and others on the horizon such as virtual and augmented reality. Participants will work in mixed teams to design improvements or innovations in their existing business models.

The program of study has been designed specifically for international music and media business executives, with a curriculum grounded in guided practice and critical theory that interweaves music, business, innovation and new media. Participants work closely with FGV and NYU faculty, guest speakers, and each other to debate and discuss such questions as:
— what are the most significant social, cultural, technological and economic changes taking place that today’s executive must be aware of?
— what do fans, customers, sponsors and other stakeholders expect from the cultural and creative industries in the coming years?
— how should the various value propositions of transmedia exploitation be compared and differentiated?

Required Reading:
Henry Jenkins, Sam Ford, and Joshua Green. Spreadable media: Creating value and meaning in a networked culture. New York: New York University Press, 2013, hardcover, (352p) ISBN 978-0814743508.
Nuno Bernardo. Transmedia 2.0: How to Create an Entertainment Brand Using a Transmedial Approach to Storytelling. Beactive Books, 2014, paperback, (162p) ISBN-13: 9781909547018

Daily schedule

9am-10:15am — Instructor presentation
10:30am-12pm — Trends and tools
12pm-1:30pm — Lunch
1:30pm-2:15pm — Guest speaker
2:30pm-4pm — Innovation Lab teamwork sessions
4pm-5:30pm — Pitches, guests and site visits

Day 1 (Mon July 20) — Context
Focus: What are the most important changes in society, technology, media formats and cultural forms, and economics in contemporary world and near future?
Instructor Presentation: Transmedia and emerging interactive technologies and opportunities (Prof Howard-Spink)
Tools: Spreadable Media and Transmedia Value Networks. (Prof D’Ipolitto)
Guest speaker: Prof Catherine Moore, NYU Music Business
Innovation Lab teamwork: Teams first meet and get to know each other.
Extra guest speaker: Transmedia executive TBD (4-5pm).
Discussion and feedback (5-5:30pm)

Day 2 (Tue July 21) — The Public
Focus: What do fans, customers, consumers, sponsors and partners expect from culture and creative businesses?
Instructor presentation: Millennials, women, kids, the elderly, other (Prof Morel).
Tools: Understanding your customers (speaker TBD)
Guest speaker: Prof Larry Miller on data analytics
Innovation Lab teamwork:
Site visit: Transmedia firm

Day 3 (Wed July 22) — Value Design
Focus: Exploring and comparing value attributes and differentiators using value benchmarking models.
Instructor presentation: Transmedia business cases (Profs Howard-Spink and Morel).
Tools: Transmedia value design (Prof D’Ipolitto)
Guest speaker: TBD
Innovation Lab teamwork:
Pitch rehearsal

Day 4 (Thur July 23) — Business Models
Focus: Designing a business model as a set of hypotheses about value creation and appropriation.
Instructor Presentation: Hybrid Business Models (Prof Howard-Spink)
Tools: Designing Transmedia business ecologies (Prof D’Ipolitto)
Guest Speaker: Prof Larry Miller on Lean Launchpads
Innovation Lab teamwork:
Site visit: Transmedia firm

Day 5 (Fri July 24) — Pilot Design
Focus: Testing business model hypotheses and launching product/service
Instructor Presentation: TBD
Tools: Applying the Lean Launchpad model
Guest speaker: TBD
Innovation Lab teamwork:
Final Pitch

Apply now: http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/global/music_business

Music Business Innovation Lab: Transmedia Collaborations for Executives

11041773_936967189655533_6062428377305872508_n
This one-week, professional-level training lab in cross-cultural and transmedia innovation is designed for music and media industry executives.
The intensive program analyzes emerging business models and international markets for music and media–positioned at the intersection of several overlapping areas of industry. We examine existing and emergent strategies for designing hybrid business models to manage the dispersal of content across multiple platforms, including interactive websites, smartphone and tablet apps, social video games, music and video streaming services, live performances, and others on the horizon, such as virtual and augmented reality.
Participants will work in mixed teams to design improvements or innovations to their existing business models.
This is a joint collaboration of the Music Business Program at New York University’s Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human Development, in partnership with Brazil’s Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV) International Affairs Division.
Who should enroll?

The Music Business Innovation Lab is designed for music and media industry executives with 3-8 years of experience. The program aims to develop participants’ capabilities in such areas as:

  • collaborating across technological and cultural boundaries
  • exploring emergent platforms and media formats
  • analyzing data and trends underlying evolving models for music in a transmedia context
  • developing business models and strategies with clear value propositions and potential.
Where and when

Location: New York City (Manhattan), New York, USA on the New York University campus

Dates: July 20-24, 2015

Arrival/Departure: Participants should expect to arrive on or before Sunday, July 19 and depart on or after Saturday, July 25.

Institute Dates: Sessions will begin on Monday morning, July 20 and end on Friday evening, July 24.

Please contact allison.keves@nyu.edu with questions.

Apply now here: http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/global/music_business?utm_source=html-general-email&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=innovation-lab2015

SUPERSTAR – AND THE LIGHT AT END OF THE TUNEL

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Which band has never wished to play its music to a large audience? And which listener wouldn’t like to turn on the TV and be introduced to new artists? Rede Globo’s Superstar, can bring on a new breath of life to Brazilian popular music. It is a great opportunity for the hitherto-unknown bands to show their music in a national network, something unthinkable until a few years ago. And, for those who wish to take in new sounds, it is enough to turn on the TV and cast your vote. In the Internet and digital social network era, traditional media, such as TV ‘s and radio stations, strive to adapt not to miss the chance.

The benefits created by the Internet on musical production and promotion are visible and undeniable. The Internet has facilitated access to those interested in stepping into the music market and has provided new forms of relationship between audience and artists, mainly on account of the advent of digital social networks. However, Brazil bears a cultural peculiarity, which is its strong links whit traditional media. This occurs at the same time in which Brazilians are one of the biggest social network user groups, second only to the USA in access to platforms such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube, for example.

The TV, for example, is present in almost 100% of Brazilian homes, and, according to IBGE (the Brazilian Statistics Bureau), this number exceeds that of refrigerators per household.

In addition to being an important opinion-making communications vehicle, the TV bears a very important role in the productive chain of music – as a disseminating agent. Either on soap operas soundtracks, or on TV shows, music has always been present on television, although restricted to a few artists. Moreover, it also works as a celebrity agent, providing new artists popularity.

Brazil is well known for its musical diversity and an artist, to develop a career, needs the TV for exposure and to present his/her musical repertory. If the Internet and the digital musical production technology have facilitated the insertion of bands into the market – one of the hurdles these groups face – as from now they need to attract the attention of their audience. But amid so many options, a listener becomes confused and needs some kind of guidance to come to know new artists.

For a long while this guidance had been performed by the record industry, which selected and invested in artistic careers, picking out performers, from their specific musical niches, and launching them into mainstream. And, on account of the current shrinking of the music business model, this industry has lost its strength to invest in new careers, as it had done in the past. Moreover, the room for promoting new artists in traditional media has diminished, making the Internet the main music promotion vehicle.

Exposure of new artists on Brazilian television has occurred, in the recent years, mainly on TV shows such as Fama (the Brazilian version of Operación Triunfo), Idols (American Idols), and The Voice, the proposals of which, even though not identical, bear a number of similarities: competition between singers based on their performances. However, these formats, somewhat, compel the singers to perform certain public-acclaimed songs. The performance by these candidates of authorial pieces is not allowed, or even fostered. What is at play is their vocal performance.

TV Show  “Superstar” might begin a new era in Brazilian popular music, by displaying unheard-of authorial collections to the mass public. It is extremely valuable for a band seeking to develop its career and increase its fan base to perform its music on national TV. Even using competition and popular vote in its format, the winner is not the only one who claims victory. It is enough to check the Facebook pages of a number of participants and note a considerable increase in their fan number after appearing in the program. Some of them have also had their compositions played on the radio. All this is, at least, productive, isn’t it?

It is impossible not to make an analogy between Superstar and the Brazilian Popular Music Festivals, responsible for unveiling a generation which would forever mark the history of Brazilian music- Chico Buarque, Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil. These are different times and formats, yet, we can say that there is a common purpose: emphasis on new artists exhibiting their own repertory.

Superstar may contribute to Brazilian musical renovation, so much coveted by those who have been complaining about the superficiality of several mass musical works. This also demonstrates that the TV still purports an important role in exhibiting artistic to the public gaze and, thereby, develop musical careers in Brazil. And, for the listener, it also works as some kind of guidance, selecting artists from unlimited and unrestricted virtual world. Even benefitting from digital technology, these artists are found in specific niches and need media exposure to grow. The media function is of paramount importance for, each day, a new band emerges from the Internet realm.

Naturally, Superstar is prone to criticism regarding its format criteria adopted and participants. Maybe it will benefit certain bands and not others. Nevertheless, living aside the missteps of this first edition, it is worthwhile highlighting its importance, for its emphasis on the bands authorial repertoire, a milestone to current Brazilian music.

A long life to Superstar, that it may be the initial step in the renovation of Brazilian music, that it may reveal great talents and arouse the TV spectators interest in music through the TV.

Leo Morel is Professor of Culture and Media Studies at FGV/IDE-Rio, author of the book Music and Technology; he is also a professional musician.

FGV seminar discusses creative business in the music market

IMG_2580The seminar discussed how the convergence of information technology, communications and media are opening new artistic and business opportunities to musicians and musical groups in local and global markets.

On August 7, Fundação Getulio Vargas promoted, through its International Division (DINT) and FGV Management Rio, the international seminar “Creative Dialogues: Innovation in Music Business,” which discussed how the convergence of information technology, communications and media are opening new artistic and business opportunities to musicians and musical groups in local and global markets.

The event – which was attended by Professor of Music Businesses at New York University, Sam Howard-Spink – was organized by the coordinator of the MBA in Management and Cultural Production, Claudio D’Ipolitto, and Professor Leo Morel. The Director of FGV Management Rio, Silvio Badenes, and DINT’s International Relations manager, Eduardo Marques, opened the seminar highlighting the importance of international cooperation, both for the MBA courses and the exchange of professors and students among partner institutions.

Then, Sam Howard-Spink analyzed the emergence of hybrid business models, addressing three important examples of emerging markets: Brazil, India and China. He mentioned the collective funding platform through fans “Queremos!” and its international branch “We Demand!”, released in the United States.

Another interesting case presented was NH7.in, an online music platform in India dedicated to independent bands. As Howard-Spink warned, “the music industry can be regarded as a precursor of structural, technological and business changes that may affect other creative industries (audiovisual and games)”. He also noted that the model developed by Napster and its successors in the music value chain has been influencing other cultural or based on content areas ever since. “It is important to continue observing the innovations in the music business model,” said the professor.

In turn, Leo Morel argued that, when interviewing musicians to write his books “Music and Technology” and “One Piece”, it became clear that one of the biggest challenges faced by them was to stand out amid the almost unlimited universe of artists and bands on the internet. “That’s why innovation becomes increasingly essential for musicians and music producers. But this innovation is not necessarily related to information technology, it can also be sought in the musical aesthetics of the artists and their management models,” said the Professor of Culture and New Media.

Claudio D’Ipolitto, who teaches and researches Innovation in Creative Business Models, said that “today, the artist who is responsible for his/her own production can already scribble innovative ideas on a napkin using some simple modeling techniques for businesses”. He concluded the event with one advice: “I strongly recommend that, although you are not a ‘business person’ and expect someone to manage your career, it is important to understand the language and the rules of the game (…). If you are able to read the models behind the contracts, you will be more capable to discuss and decide the ways in which your talent can be translated into a sustainable revenue flow and how your image will be perceived by your target audience”.

The event, conducted in English, took place at FGV’s main offices, at Praia de Botafogo, Rio de Janeiro.

*In the photo: Claudio D’Ipolitto, Leo Morel, Sam Howard-Spink, Silvio Badenes e Eduardo Marques.

Source: http://fgvnoticias.fgv.br/en/news/fgv-seminar-discusses-creative-business-music-market

Making a living (from art)

Countless options exist for those who dabble in arts and culture and who seek, either professionally, or amateurishly, to place themselves in the market. In music, dance, theatre, movies, and plastic arts, many individuals are professionals in other areas and do not market their artistic talents. Others make art an income complement and some live exclusively from a specific cultural segment. They also diversify their skills to broaden their work opportunities.

Professionally, we can group the activities for an individual to position himself in the market. This has been discussed previously in another article of mine, focused especially on the music market. (Available here https://leomorel.wordpress.com/2014/07/15/making-a-living-from-music/ )

However, we may use the same classification tool with other segments, e.g.:

– Amateur: Plastic artist / Actor / Dancer / Musician: the person who has a profession outside the cultural area to support himself. His activity is an extra one, and he may either be remunerated or not.
– Semi professional: Plastic artist / Actor / Dancer / Musician: the person who earns remuneration from the cultural segment, but still need another economic activity to balance his/her budget.
– Professional: Plastic artist / Actor / Dancer / Musician: the person who lives exclusively from his/her cultural segment, this being his/her main source of remuneration.

It stands to reason that one can develop a career without having necessarily a single source of income. In music, for example, Brazilian composer Guinga, shared, for a long time, his musical career, with that of a dentist. Vinicius de Morais was a diplomat.

286_1145-arte-teatroIn the theatre, for example, experts defend that the professionals have better chances of placing themselves in the market by diversifying their field action: “They do not need to be only actors, they could be directors, create texts or costumes. Those who produce spectacles are also requested”, says Paula …, USJT Scenic Arts Coordinator, in an interview available in ….

The scenic arts provide a wide diversity of career options, many of which, off-stage, unlike popular belief. The Brazilian Ministry of Labor, through the Brazilian Occupation Classification, lists some of them, as follows:

– Play adapter;
– Actor;
– Director’s assistant;
– Scriptwriter;
– Scenery designer;
– Critic;
– Electrician;
– Sound engineer;
– Producer;
– Theatre instructor at basic school, high school or college.

Beside, many of those who work in the theatre do not make an exclusive living from it; it is possible to be an actor, work in a given theatrical company and still have a career in another economic segment, something quite usual.

286_1146-arte-cinemaIn the cinema, there is also many work options, at times far from the movie theaters. Many people are hired as independent professionals – freelancers– to work for a specific project, or with a production company. It is possible, e.g., to work in producing commercials, and in long and /or short feature films. Here are some career options of this segment, classified by the Brazilian Ministry of Labor:

– Director’s assistant;
– Studio assistant (cinema and video);
– Actor;
– Screenwriter;
– Ticket seller;
– Camera man;
– Movie Set designer;
– Tv and Movie production team coordinator;
– Critic;
– Director;
– Studio manager;
– Costume designer;
– Sound engineer;
– Costume administrator;
– Movie technician;
– Production technologist

In plastic arts it is possible to develop creative skills such as drafting, sculpture, painting and engraving. There are also niches like arts restoration, organizing exhibitions, art shows, gallery management, museums and cultural foundation management. Besides these examples, here follow other positions in this sector:

– Curator;
– Critic;
– Art teaching;
– Art show organizer;
– Art dealer.

In Brazil, tax incentive laws have enabled specialized professionals to perform tasks in private initiative projects geared to this sector. It is also common for people to act in other areas to complement their income. Or have arts as a hobby.

For dancing, there are also several options of activities to be performed, depending on market insertion. As seen in the other segments, the tax incentive laws have facilitated generating sponsorship, essential to enable projects. The Brazilian Labor Ministry lists a few work occupations, as follows:
– Critic;
– Dancer;
– Playwright;
– Dance rehearser;
– Instructor in schools.

286_1153-arte-musicaIn the case of music, this issue has already been specified in a previous article, available here https://leomorel.wordpress.com/2014/07/15/making-a-living-from-music/ As a comparison, we list a number of activities in this segment:
– Own-composition band;
– Tribute or cover band;
– Dance band or orchestra;
– Tour manager;
– Sound engineer;
– Art manager;
– Record distributor;
– Arranger;

As could be observed, certain segments afford more opportunities for work than others, depending, among other factors, on their economic development. Probably there must be other activities not listed, but the goal of this article was to clarify different insertion forms in the realm of arts and culture, either on amateur or on a professional basis. Each individual should then determine the specialization he would like to perform to achieve success.

There are several variables, which determine success in a specific cultural segment: training, organization capability, talent, professionalism, network and, last but not least, luck. Because of that, one needs to be aware to learn how to live in a market which is, at the same time, developing in Brazil and demanding ever more qualified professionals, and which still suffers from a high degree of informality in labor relations.

Leo Morel is Professor of Culture and Media Studies at FGV/IDE-Rio, author of the book Music and Technology; he is also a professional musician.

Making a living (from music)

viver_musica

Record labels in crisis, a slump in CDs sales and music downloads in the Internet. The music business is not the same anymore since the end of the last century. What are musicians doing to make a living in the 21-st century?

Technological evolution has brought about market changes in the productive chain of music. This has led to the decline of a business model, based on the growth of the phonographic industry, hegemonic thought out the past century. If, until recently, most popular musicians depended on such agents as investors to develop their careers, how to deal, nowadays, with a scenario in which these artists are ever more responsible for the administration and financing of their work? How can a band create conditions to fund its art and make a living nowadays?

Firstly, it is important to point out that the music business displays several niches and different forms of insertion. We can point to three different insertion stages:

– Amateur musicians – those who have a professional activity outside music. Music is an extra activity, which may or may not carry remuneration.
– Semi professional musicians – those who earn remuneration from music but need another economic activity to obtain an income to balance their budgets.
– Professional musicians – those who make their living exclusively from music.

Many are musicians who do not live exclusively from their craft. Guinga, a famous Brazilian composer, long shared his musical career with his activity as a dentist; Vinicius de Moraes was a diplomat. It is also common for a musician to use his income acquired outside the musical realm to invest in his or her musical career.

Currently there is a great variety of earning possibilities in the music field: several musicians act in different market niches to secure their sustenance. There are those very rare ones who live exclusively from a single professional activity. Most musicians seek to develop different skills to broaden their chances of work. An instrument player, for example, may have his own repertory, accompany other artists for pay, record, and teach. For a sound engineer, there is the possibility of working with sound systems in nightclubs and show houses, as well as, doing studio recordings. The combinations may vary according to each one’s abilities and aspirations. Here are some of these professional possibilities in the contemporary musical segment:

– A band with its own compositions;
– Tribute or cover band;
– Dance band or orchestra;
– Sound systems for events;
– Structure setup;
– Management;
– Booking;
– Executive production;
– Tour manager;
– Technical work (sound, lighting, stage);
– Artistic direction;
– Show houses, theaters, nightclubs, bars (live music);
– Phonographic production (recording company);
– Music publishing;
– Record distribution;
– Record, DVD, etc., sales;
– Music instrument and equipment accessories;
– Repair and manufacture;
– Composing;
– Player or interpreter (playing, singing for third parties);
– Independent singer;
– Arranger;
– Sound engineer.

As you can see, there are many work options in the music market, and being important to note that one vocation does not necessarily exclude another. A musician can develop his career by performing different functions according to his aspirations and professional motivations. Indeed, the current market configuration imposes that the musician have many qualifications. Besides being an instrument player, he or she must have skills not related to the music business, such as management and marketing.

Leo Morel is Professor of Culture and Media Studies at FGV/IDE-Rio, author of the book Music and Technology; he is also a professional musician.